俄罗斯世界杯投注官网

发表时间:2018-12-06内容来源:VOA英语学习网

Thompson: From politics to protests, events seem to unfold so quickly these days that it can be hard to keep track of them, let alone put them in perspective. In an attempt to tackle those challenges, some museums and archivists are now trying to create a record of our turbulent era for future generations by going out into the field and collecting artifacts in real time. NewsHour weekend's Ivette Feliciano has the story.

IVETTE FELICIANO: This is the National Museum of African-American history and Culture in Washington, DC. Here, decades-old artifacts and photos from the civil rights era are displayed along objects depicting a more recent struggle. Lonnie bunch is the museum's founding director.

LONNIE BUNCH: This is a photo of Ferguson and demonstrations around Ferguson. And what I think is powerful is that 20 years ago we might not have collected this.

IVETTE FELICIANO: The photo was taken during the protests of the 2014 police killing of Michael Brown. It was acquired by the museum as part of what it calls its "rapid response collection program". When major events unfold, the museum sends curators into the field to collect artifacts. The idea is to create a record well before the history books are written.

LONNIE BUNCH: So the goal here is not to sort of sweep in and pick up everything. The goal is to have a few central artifacts that give you many meanings. That allow you to sort of say if somebody sees that, for example, if somebody sees a shirt that says, "Black Lives Matter," we know what that means today. How important it is. But they may not know that 20 years from now. So to be able to have something clear and concise that we can build stories around is what I ask the curators to collect.

IVETTE FELICIANO: Other items from Ferguson in the museum's collection include this gas mask worn by a demonstrator and this suit worn by a pastor who attended the protests. Also collected by museum curators in 2014, this t-shirt worn by a demonstrator protesting the police killing of Eric Garner in Staten Island, New York. In 2015, this rake was used to clean up a Baltimore neighborhood after people took to the streets to protest the death of Freddie Grey while he was in police custody. This t-shirt displays the logo of an anti-violence group that formed as a result of the protests. And this Black Panther pin was collected later that same year from the 20th anniversary of the million man march in Washington.

IVETTE FELICIANO: Why is rapid response collecting important to the mission of this center?

LONNIE BUNCH: In some ways one of the great divides in America's always been race, and that as Americans grapple with a changing sense of who they are, as they grapple with the changing notions of how race matters and plays out, we thought it was really important to capture those moments that were transformative. I'll be honest. Sometimes you guess. You say, "is this going to be important or not?" For us it's really important that this museum, which really has to help the American public grapple with things that have divided us, to not just be about yesterday, but to be about as much about today and tomorrow.

IVETTE FELICIANO: You know, to play devil's advocate, are you shaping history?

LONNIE BUNCH: Of course. The job of a scholar is to both look back, make sure you interpret the past with different lenses, but also in a museum your job is to make sure the next generation can interpret the world you live in today. So the kinds of things you collect are shaping history. Shaping the way people interpret history. I know as a scholar of African American history there were many times I wanted to do exhibitions and there was nothing in the collections that could tell those stories. That shapes history by omission. So the notion for me is let's give people as many opportunities as possible. They may decide that stories we've collected aren't that important, and that's fine. But I want to make sure that you've got the resources to be able to tell important stories in the future.

IVETTE FELICIANO: Other institutions use rapid response collection as well. The New York Historical Society began sending out "history brigades" after the September 11th terrorist attack in 2001. And it has collected items commemorating the 2017 and 2018 women's marches on Washington. In Orlando, Florida, the Orange County Regional History Center acquired more than 7,000 items for its "One Orlando" collection. The collection revolves around the 2015 Pulse Nightclub shooting. And the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis, Tennessee has an exhibit on the Trump administration's immigrant family separation policy. The exhibit is titled "I am a child." It was inspired by the iconic "I am a man" photos taken during the 1968 Memphis sanitation workers strike. The exhibit uses photographs that went viral on social media earlier this year. They show children protesting on the steps of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency's New York office.

LONNIE BUNCH: I think whenever America is really debating its identity, debating who it is, grappling with issues that divide us, that's when the museum ought to be more aggressive and collecting material. It just seems to me that a good museum isn't just a place of nostalgia. It's not just a place of the exotic. It's a place that provides people useful tools to grapple with the world they face. And by grappling with the world they face they can make it better.

汤普森:从政坛风云到抗议示威,最近,各种事件纷至沓来,让人目不暇接,连记录都难,更别说客观看待了。为了应对这些挑战,一些博物馆和档案保管员现在正努力创建我们这个混乱时代的记录,为子孙后代准备。创建这样的记录的方法是——到实地实时收集人工产品。下面请听《新闻一小时》周末档记者费利西亚诺发回的报道。

伊维特·费利西亚诺:这里是华盛顿的非洲美洲历史文化国家博物馆。这里有数十年历史的人工产品和照片,都来自于民权时代。这些东西都陈列在代表最近一次抗争的物件旁边。朗尼是这家博物馆的创始人。

朗尼·庞琦:这是弗格森的照片以及与弗格森有关的抗议示威活动。我觉得无比震撼的地方在于——20年前的我们可能不会收集这个东西。

伊维特·费利西亚诺:这张照片是在2014年抗议示威期间拍摄的,当时警方杀死了迈克尔·布朗。博物馆凭借“迅速响应收集物料项目”的由头获得了这张照片。一旦发生大事,该博物馆就会派博物馆管理者去实地收集人工产品。其理念是:在史书尘埃落定之前,就能创建一份记录。

朗尼·庞琦:所以博物馆的目标是并不是劫掠一切或者带走所有物料。其目标是获取一些富含多种含义的中心物件。这样就能在有人看到物料(比如是T恤)上写着“黑人的生命同等重要”的时候,即使是在今天,也明白其中的含义。这是多么重要啊。但我们20年前可能并不知道。所以,可以围绕其展开多个故事的物料要清晰又准确,这是我对博物馆管理者们收集物料的要求。

伊维特·费利西亚诺:该博物馆收集的弗格森的其他物料还包括这个防毒面具(当时是一名示威者佩戴的),以及抗议示威中一位牧师穿的衣服。此外,该博物馆还于2014年收集了这件T恤。它是一位抗议示威者穿的,当时他/她正在抗议埃里克·加纳在纽约斯塔顿岛被杀一事。2015年,它被用来清理巴尔的摩地段,因为此前市民走上街头抗议弗雷迪·格雷被警察拘留。这件T恤上有一个反暴力组织的徽标,这个组织是因抗议频发而形成的。而这枚黑豹的别针也是在那之后的同年收集的,收集的场合是华盛顿百万人游行的20周年纪念上。

伊维特·费利西亚诺:为什么迅速响应收集物料对于我们很重要呢?

朗尼·庞琦:从某个角度来说,美国最大的分歧之一就是种族。美国人对自己身份的认知一直在变化,而他们还没有完全适应这种认知的变化。因为美国人对种族重要性的认识一直在变化。我们认为记录下这些变革型的时刻是十分重要的。说实话,有时候我们也不确定,会怀疑“这件事是否重要呢?”对我们来说,很重要的一点是:这家博物馆切实帮助美国公众与让美国人分裂的事情作斗争,而不要沉迷于昨天,而是注重现在和未来。

伊维特·费利西亚诺:跟邪恶势力抬杠,是要改变历史吗?

朗尼·庞琦:当然,学者的任务是既要回顾过去,以确保从不同的角度来解读过去,也要承担好博物馆的任务,即确保下一代人能够解读我们当今的世界。所以,我们收集的物料是可以改变历史的,改变人们解读历史的方式。作为研究非洲美洲历史的学者,我多次想过做展览,但却苦于没有可以诉说故事的物料。我们的疏忽也会改变历史。所以我的想法是要尽可能多的给大家机会。他们可能会决定我们收集的故事是否足够重要,这样很好。但我想确认一点——我们获取的资源足以支持我们的后辈回顾重要的故事。

伊维特·费利西亚诺:还有其他机构也会用迅速响应收集模式。纽约历史学会开始在2001年发生9/11恐袭事件后就公布了《历史旅程》,此外还收集了一些可以纪念2017和2018年华盛顿女性游行的物料。在佛罗里达州的奥兰多,橙县历史中心获取了7000多件物料,用于“一个奥兰多”的展览。这次展览的主题是2015年脉搏酒吧枪击案。田纳西州孟菲斯市的国家民权博物馆也有一个特朗普政府关于移民骨肉分离政策的展览。展览的标题是《我还是个孩子》。这次展览受到了标志性的《我是男人》照片的启发。这些照片拍摄于1968年孟菲斯市环卫工人的罢工。这次展览用到的一些照片今年年初风靡社交媒体。照片中,很多孩子移民和海关执法局驻纽约办事处的台阶上进行抗议。

朗尼·庞琦:我认为只要美国人开始讨论自己的身份和对自己的认知,并与分裂问题作斗争的时候,正是该博物馆应该更加主动积极收集物料的时候。我认为,好的博物馆不是让人怀旧,而是给人不一样的感觉。好的博物馆应该为人们提供有用的工具,来跟困难作斗争。而跟困难作斗争会让世界变得更加美好。

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.discjockeydirectory.com/html/20181206/PBS06101810uj.html